On this date in history:
- 1494 Family de' Medici become rulers of Florence.
- 1799 Napoleon Bonaparte becomes dictator (1st consul) of France.
- 1921 Partito Nazionalista Fascista formed in Italy by Mussolini.
- 1923 Beer Hall Putsch organised by Hitler in Munich.
- 1938 Kristallnacht begins: pogrom against Jews in Germany and Austria.
- 1984 Wes Craven's horror film "A Nightmare on Elm Street" premieres in the US.